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What is Epilepsy


Epilepsy is a central nervous system (neurological) illness characterized by irregular brain activity, resulting in seizures or episodes of odd behavior, feelings, and, in some cases, loss of awareness. Epilepsy may affect everyone. Epilepsy affects both men and women of various races, religions, and ages. The symptoms of a seizure might vary differently. During a seizure, some persons with epilepsy just look blankly for a few seconds, while others move their hands or legs frequently. A single seizure does not say that you are suffering from epilepsy. For an epilepsy diagnosis, at least two seizures without a known trigger (unprovoked seizure) that occur at least 24 hours apart are usually necessary. The majority of persons with epilepsy can be controlled by medication or, in rare cases, surgery. Some patients require lifetime treatment to manage their seizures, while others' seizures ultimately go away. Some children with epilepsy may outgrow their disease as they grow older.

Symptoms of Epilepsy

Epilepsy is caused by unusual activity in the brain and seizure which can affect any process of brain coordinates.
The signs and symptoms of seizure include:-

  • You may suffer temporary confusion
  • You might do continuous starring
  • Your muscles might feel stiff
  • An uncontrollable quick movement in the arms and legs
  • You might feel unaware or unconscious
  • Psychological symptoms include fear, anxiety, and deja vu

The symptoms of a seizure differ depending on the kind of seizure. A person with epilepsy will often experience the same sort of seizure each time, therefore the symptoms will be constant from episode to episode.

Types of Epilepsy

Seizure is classified as either focal or generalized by doctors based on how and where the abnormal brain activity occurs.

Focal Seizure:

When seizure appears to be caused by aberrant activity in only one part of your brain, they are referred to as focal seizure.
This seizure is classified into two types:

Seizure with a single focal point but no loss of awareness: This seizure, formerly known as a simple partial seizure, does not result in a loss of consciousness. They can affect emotions as well as the appearance, smell, feel, taste, and sound of objects. Most people get a sense of deja vu. This type of seizure may also include involuntary jerking of a single body part, such as an arm or leg, as well as sudden sensory symptoms including tingling, dizziness, and flashing lights.

Seizure with a single focal point and diminished consciousness: This seizure earlier known as complex partial seizure includes a shift or loss of consciousness or awareness. This sort of seizure may appear to be a dream. During a focal seizure with reduced awareness, you may stare into space and not respond to your surroundings normally, or you may make repeated movements.
The symptoms of a focal seizure may also include other neurological disorders such as migraine, narcolepsy, or some mental illness. A deep examination and testing are required to distinguish between epilepsy and other disorders.

Generalized Seizure:

Seizures that appear to be in all areas of the brain are called generalized seizures. There are six types of generalized seizure and they are as follows:-

Absence seizure
Absence seizures, formerly known as petit mal seizures, are most common in youngsters. They endure between 5 and 10 seconds and are distinguished by looking into space with or without modest body movements such as eye blinking or lip-smacking. This seizure can occur in clusters, up to 100 times each day, and cause a momentary loss of consciousness.

Tonic Seizure
Tonic seizure produces muscle stiffness and may impair consciousness. This seizure often affects the muscles in your back, arms, and legs, causing you to collapse to the ground.

Atonic seizure
Atonic seizure, often known as drop seizure, causes muscular control to be lost. Because this most commonly affects the legs, it frequently leads you to collapse or fall.

Clonic seizure
Clonic seizures are characterized by repetitive or rhythmic jerking muscular movements. These convulsions are most commonly felt in the neck, face, and arms.

Myoclonic seizure.
Myoclonic seizures mainly appear as sudden jerks or twitches and mainly affect your upper body, hands, and legs.

Tonic-clonic seizure
Tonic-clonic seizure, previously known as grand mal seizure, is the most typical type of epileptic seizure. It can cause an abrupt loss of consciousness and body stiffening, twitching, and shaking. It sometimes causes tongue biting or loss of control of the bladder.

When to visit a doctor for a checkup:

Check for immediate medical help if you find any of the following conditions happening:-
  • The seizure remains more than five minutes
  • A problem in breathing and consciousness after the seizure stops
  • If after just one another occurs
  • You are suffering from a high fever
  • If you are in pregnancy
  • If you have diabetes
  • If you have just given harm to yourself
  • If you are still suffering from seizures after having your medications.

What are the causes of epilepsy?

Till now the cause of epilepsy is not identified because half of the people with epilepsy stated various factors mentioned below, and some of their factors are not found. Some factors which are found are as follows:-

Genetic influence:-

Some varieties of epilepsy, which are classified based on the type of seizure or the portion of the brain affected, run in families. In these circumstances, it's quite likely that there's a genetic component at work.
Researchers have discovered some varieties of epilepsy that have been connected to specific genes, however, for the majority of people, genes are just part of the reasons for epilepsy. Certain genes may make a person more susceptible to environmental factors that cause seizures.

Head injury:-

Epilepsy can be caused by head trauma from a vehicle accident or another traumatic event.

Brain abnormalities:-

Epilepsy can be caused by brain abnormalities such as brain tumors or vascular malformations such as arteriovenous malformation (AVMs) and cavernous malformations. Stroke is the most common cause of epilepsy in persons over the age of 35.


Epilepsy can be caused by meningitis, HIV, viral encephalitis, and various parasite illnesses.

Prenatal injury:-

Babies are sensitive to brain injury before birth, which can be caused by a variety of circumstances such as a mother's illness, inadequate nutrition, or oxygen deficiency. This type of brain injury can cause epilepsy or cerebral palsy.

Developmental Disorder

Epilepsy is occasionally linked to developmental abnormalities such as autism.

Risk factors of epilepsy are:-

Some factors which can increase the risk of epilepsy are:-

1. Age-

Epilepsy is more frequent in children and older adults, although it can strike anybody at any age.

2. Family history-

If anyone from your family suffers from epilepsy then you have a higher risk of having epilepsy or seizure disorder.

3. Head injury-

Head traumas are common. Some instances of epilepsy are caused by head trauma. Wearing a seat belt when driving and a helmet while bicycling, skiing, riding a motorbike, or participating in other sports with a high risk of head injury can lower your risk.

4. Stroke and vascular disease-

Stroke disorders are examples of vascular diseases. Stroke and other blood vessels (vascular) illnesses can cause brain injury, which can result in epilepsy. You may minimize your risk of these diseases by reducing your alcohol use and avoiding cigarettes, eating a nutritious diet, and exercising.

5. Dementia

It can increase the risk of epilepsy in adults. However, we know that two proteins that accumulate in the brains of persons with Alzheimer's disease - amyloid and tau – disrupt how nerve cells interact with one another. These nerve cells can sometimes become 'hyper-excitable,' which means they might function erratically, resulting in epileptic seizures.

6. Infection in the brain

Infections like meningitis may lead to inflammation in your brain or spinal cord which leads to an increase in the risk of having epilepsy.

7. Seizure in childhood-

One of the main factors can be a high fever in childhood in the case of a seizure. Children who already have a seizure because of high fever do not develop epilepsy easily, but the risk increases if a child has a fever for a long time leads to seizure, nervous system condition, or any family history of epilepsy

Complications occur in epilepsy-

Suffering from seizures can be harmful and dangerous to yourself or others. some of the complications which are suffered by people are:-


You might damage your skull or break a bone if you fall during a seizure.


Because of the likelihood of having a seizure while in the water, people with epilepsy are 13-19 times more likely than the general population to drown when swimming or bathing.

Car accidents

If you're driving a car or running other machinery, a seizure that causes loss of consciousness or control might be risky. Many jurisdictions have driver's license limitations based on a driver's capacity to control seizure and impose a minimum period that a motorist must be seizure-free before being permitted to drive, which can range from months to years.

Pregnancy Complication

Seizure during pregnancy endangers both the mother and the fetus, and many anti-epileptic drugs raise the chance of birth abnormalities. If you have epilepsy and want to get pregnant, consult with your doctor while you plan your pregnancy. Most women can become pregnant and have healthy infants. Throughout your pregnancy, you'll need to be closely checked, and your medicines may need to be modified. You must collaborate with your doctor to plan your pregnancy.

Problems with emotional wellness.

People who have epilepsy are more prone to suffer from psychological issues, including sadness, anxiety, and suicidal thoughts and acts. Problems may arise as a consequence of difficulty managing the illness or pharmaceutical adverse effects, but even persons with well-controlled epilepsy are at risk.
Some of the other uncommon complications can be life-threatening and they are as follows:-

Status epilepticus-

This condition develops if you have a continuous seizure activity that lasts more than five minutes or if you have a recurring seizure without regaining full awareness in between them. People suffering from status epilepticus are at a higher risk of lifelong brain damage and death.

Sudden unexpected death in Epilepsy-

In epilepsy, sudden unexpected death occurs (SUDEP). People who have epilepsy are also at risk of dying suddenly and unexpectedly. The reason is unknown, however, some study suggests that it might be caused by cardiac or respiratory problems. People who have frequent tonic-clonic seizures or whose seizures are uncontrolled by medication may be at a higher risk of SUDEP. SUDEP kills around 1% of persons with epilepsy. It is particularly frequent in those who have severe epilepsy that isn't responding to therapy.

How to diagnose epilepsy?

Your doctor will examine your symptoms as well as your medical history to determine the cause of your disease. Several tests may be performed by your doctor to diagnose epilepsy and identify the origin of seizures. Your examination may involve the following:

A neurological examination

To diagnose your problem and establish the type of epilepsy you may have, your doctor may conduct tests on your behavior, physical ability, mental function, and other areas.

Blood testing

Your doctor may request a blood test to look for evidence of infections, genetic problems, or other illnesses that may be linked to seizures. Your doctor may also advise you to undergo tests to discover brain abnormalities, such as:

Electroencephalogram (EEG)

This is the most common test used for diagnosing epilepsy. Electrodes are connected to your scalp using a paste-like material or a cap during this examination. Your brain's electrical activity is measured by the electrodes.
Even if you don't have a seizure, it's typical to notice variations in your regular pattern of brain waves if you have epilepsy. When performing an EEG while you are awake or asleep, your doctor may videotape you to capture any seizure you have. Keeping track of your seizure might help your doctor establish what type of seizure you're having and rule out other problems.
The test can be performed in a doctor's office or a hospital. If required, you may also be given an ambulatory EEG, which you wear at home while the EEG records seizure activity over a few days. Your doctor may suggest you do something that will cause a seizure, such as getting little sleep before the test.

EEG with high density.

Your doctor may propose high-density EEG, which places electrodes closer together — approximately a half-centimeter apart — than traditional EEG. A high-density EEG may tell your doctor in determining which parts of your brain are suffering from seizures.

CT scan

CT stands for computed tomography. A CT scan is a type of X-ray that shows cross-sectional pictures of your brain. CT scans will detect structural abnormalities in your brain that may be causing your seizure, such as tumors, bleeding, and cysts.

Magnetic resonance imaging (MRI)

An MRI creates a thorough image of your brain by using strong magnets and radio waves. Your doctor may be able to discover brain lesions or abnormalities that are causing your seizure.

MRI for functional purposes (fMRI).

A functional MRI detects variations in blood flow that occur when certain sections of your brain are active. Before surgery, doctors may utilize an fMRI to pinpoint the exact location of important activities such as voice and movement so that surgeons do not injure those areas while operating.

Positron emission tomography

PET scans employ a tiny quantity of low-dose radioactive material injected into a vein to aid in the visualization of metabolic activity in the brain and the detection of abnormalities. A seizure may develop in areas of the brain with poor metabolism.

Single-photon emission computerized tomography (SPECT).

This type of test is typically utilized if an MRI and EEG failed to determine the place in your brain where the seizure is occurring. A SPECT test employs a small quantity of low-dose radioactive material injected into a vein to generate a comprehensive, 3D map of the blood flow activity in your brain during a seizure. During a seizure, areas of higher-than-normal blood flow may reveal the location of the seizure. Doctors may also do a subtraction ictal SPECT coregistered to MRI (SITCOM) test, which may offer more thorough data by overlaying the SPECT results with a patient's brain MRI.
Neuropsychological evaluations Doctors use these exams to evaluate your thinking, memory, and communication abilities. The findings of the tests assist doctors in determining which parts of your brain are impacted. In addition to your test findings, your doctor may utilize a variety of analytic techniques to help determine where the seizure begins in the brain: The statistical parametric mapping method (SPM). SPM is a technique that compares parts of the brain that have increased blood flow during seizures to normal brains, which can help doctors determine where seizures occur.

Electrical sources imaging (ESI)

ESI is an advanced technology that overcomes the EEG data onto an MRI of the brain to show doctors where seizure is occurring

Magnetoencephalography (MEG)

MEG detects possible seizure onset locations by measuring the magnetic fields created by brain activity.

Why do people choose Dr. Sumit Kamble for Epilepsy treatment in Jaipur?

Dr. Sumit Kamble is renowned for treating brain health issues. He treats patients in a very effective manner. He specializes in treating spine disorders, brain tumors, headache, epilepsy, stroke, and Parkinson’s disease. Dr. Sumit Kamble is an expert in his field as he has covered the journey of more than 10 years. He also provides botox injection to get the cure for neurological pain and movement disorder. Those people who have taken treatment for the neurological disorder have always recommended him as the best neurologist in Jaipur.

Frequently Asked Questions about Epilepsy

Q:1 Usually for how much time does the seizure last?
Ans- Seizure usually lasts from a few seconds to a few minutes. It is completely decided by the doctor which type of seizure it is.

Q:2 Does epilepsy disease is common or rare?
Ans- Epilepsy is a common disease in the US when counting in adults and children it is found that about 5.1 million people have already suffered and there are 3.4 million active cases at present in the United States.

Q:3 What are the tips to prevent epilepsy?
Ans- You should have a healthy pregnancy because some problems during pregnancy may lead to epilepsy. You should keep safety measures to protect your head by wearing a helmet while riding a bicycle, motorcycle, and scooter and also wearing a seat belt while driving the car.

Q:4 What should I do to manage my epilepsy?
Ans-You may learn how to control seizures while still living an active and fulfilling life. Begin with the following suggestions:
You should take your medication as directed, if you have any questions, speak with your doctor or nurse, recognize the causes of the seizure (such as flashing or bright lights), maintain a record of your seizure, get adequate rest and reduce your tension

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